Everyone knows what a palindrome is: a word that reads the same backwards as forwards (except for spaces and punctuation). Maybe the fact that everyone knows about them is why it's taken me a year and a half to get around to writing about them.
The most famous palindrome is probably "Madam, I'm Adam." Perhaps the second-most famous (and one of the best in terms of clarity and sticking to a topic) is the short-short story version of the creation of the Panama canal:
A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!
There have been dozens of variations on that line. For instance, if you don't remember the order of the terms right, you can find yourself saying
A plan, a man, a canam: analpa!
(I'm uncertain who to attribute that one to, but I think it may've been Elliott.) One of Mary Ann Madden's "Near Misses" contests yielded
A man, a plan, a canal: Suez!
And someone playing around with the general structure ended up with
A fool, a tool, a pool: loopalootaloofa!
At some point, someone had the bright idea of doing a computer search to expand the Panama original. One expanded version, relayed by John Kaminar, goes:
A man, a plan, a canoe, pasta, hero's rajahs, a coloratura, maps, snipe, percale, macaroni, a gag, a banana bag, a tan, a cat, a mane, paper, a Toyota, rep, a pen, a mat, a can, a tag, a banana bag again (or a camel), a crepe, pins, spam, a rut, a Rolo, cash, a jar, sore hats, a peon, a canal, Panama!
(I love "a banana bag again.")
Dan Hoey's definitive 1984 computer-assisted version starts out:
A man, a plan, a caret, a ban, a myriad, a sum, a lac, a liar, a hoop, a pint, a catalpa...
152 items later, it ends, predictably (the problem with palindromic phrases is that you can be pretty sure how they're going to end ahead of time):
...a plat, a catnip, a pooh, a rail, a calamus, a dairyman, a bater, a canal—Panama.
The complete version, along with plenty of other palindromic fun including dozens of non-English palindromes, can be found in the language section of the rec.puzzles archive; the English palindromes are in part 3 of that section, including such tidbits as the fact that "footstool" is the longest English-language Morse Code palindrome.
One last Panama-style item:
"To make a prairie, it takes a clover and one bee
But reverie alone will do
If bees are few."
—Emily Dickinson (roughly)
If only Ipanema were a prairie, the above poem would be nicely summarized by this:
Amen, apian, ana—Ipanema!
(where "ana" means "an equal quantity of each")
There are plenty of books that include palindromes; my favorite is Go Hang a Salami; I'm a Lasagna Hog!, by Jon Agee, because the palindromes are unusual (if a little surreal sometimes), and the illustrations generally provide amusing situations in which the palindromes make sense.
Besides letter palindromes, there are also word palindromes, such as:
You can cage a swallow, can't you, but you can't swallow a cage, can you?
So patient a doctor to try to doctor a patient so.
There are also poems (and even at least one published short story) which are line or sentence palindromes; I find them generally less interesting than word and letter palindromes, and the lack of sense tends to annoy me more at a greater length.
Finally, a palindrome-related category I believe I invented: words and phrases that are the same if rot-13ed (each letter shifted 13 letters in the alphabet) and then reversed:
- Banana? No!
- bar Eno
- er, gnu hater
- Garp cent
- gnu hat
- Karen X [Malcolm's sister?]
- Xena nark
- Zen arm
For links to some palindrome pages, see this page (whose URL is a palindrome).